CLINICAL ACTIONS: The NICHD conducted a workshop in January to review evidence, with special consideration to avoid unnecessary. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) published a Intraamniotic infection, also known as chorioamnionitis, is an. Historically, infection of the chorion, amnion, or both was termed ” chorioamnionitis.” Although this term remains in common use, the term.

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Diagnosis and Management of Clinical Chorioamnionitis

Chorioamnionitis is a common complication of pregnancy associated with significant maternal, perinatal, and long-term adverse outcomes.

Adverse maternal outcomes include postpartum infections and sepsis while adverse infant outcomes include stillbirth, premature birth, neonatal sepsis, chronic lung disease and brain injury leading to cerebral palsy and other neurodevelopmental disabilities. Research in the last two decades has expanded our understanding of the mechanistic links between intraamniotic infection and preterm delivery as well as morbidities of preterm and term infants.

Recent and ongoing clinical research into better methods for diagnosing, treating and preventing chorioamnionitis is likely to have a substantial impact on short and long-term outcomes in the neonate.

Chorioamnionitis or intraamniotic infection is an acute inflammation of the membranes and chorion of the placenta, typically due to ascending polymicrobial bacterial infection in the setting of membrane rupture. Only rarely is hematogeneous spread implicated in chorioamnionitis, as occurs with Listeria monocytogenes [ cjorioamnionitis ].

When characteristic clinical signs are present, the condition is referred to as clinical chorioamnionitis or clinical intraamniotic infection. Although there is significant overlap between clinical and histologic chorioamnionitis, the latter is a more common diagnosis based on pathologic findings on microscopic examination of the placenta that encompasses clinically unapparent sub-clinical chorioamnionitis chorioanionitis well as clinical chorioamnionitis.

Funisitis, also a histopathologic diagnosis, is the extension of infection or inflammation to the umbilical cord. Overall the definition of chorioamnionitis varies according chorioamnionltis key diagnostic criteria, which can be clinical presence of typical clinical findingschorioamniojitis culture of microbes from appropriately collected amniotic fluid or chorioamnion or histopathologic microscopic evidence of infection or inflammation on examination of the placenta or chorioamnionic specimens.

Twelve percent of primary cesarean births at term involve clinical chorioamnionitis, with the most common indication for cesarean in these cases being failure to progress usually after membrane rupture [ 12 ].

Multiple studies have reported risk factors for chorioamnionitis, including longer duration of membrane rupture, prolonged labor, nulliparity, African American ethnicity, internal monitoring of labor, multiple vaginal exams, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, smoking, alcohol or drug abuse, immune-compromised states, epidural anesthesia, colonization with group B streptococcus, bacterial vaginosis, sexually transmissible genital infections and vaginal colonization with ureaplasma [ 3 — 713 — 18 ].

Women’s Health Care Physicians

A strong association between untreated GBS bacteriuria and chorioamnionitis may reflect the high concentration of GBS in the genital tract [ 19 ]. After adjusting for potential confounding variables and depending on the specific confounders considered, some of the risk factors for chorioamnionitis identified in older studies no longer demonstrate an association in recent studies. Select factors independently associated with chorioamnionitis and their strength of association are summarized in Table 1 [ 3 — 713 — 17 ].

Contrary to most obstetric conditions, chorioamnionitis in a previous pregnancy may not be associated with an increased risk of chorioamnionitis in a subsequent pregnancy [ 20 ]. Although PPROM is a major risk factor for clinical chorioamnionitis, it is noteworthy that together with preterm labor, PPROM frequently is the consequence of sub-clinical chorioamanionitis [ 21 ]. This passage occurs most commonly by retrograde or ascending infection from the lower genital tract cervix cborioamnionitis vagina Figure 1.

Anterograde infection from the peritoneum via the fallopian tubes has also been postulated [ 22 ]. The presence of infectious agents in the chorioamnion engenders a maternal and fetal inflammatory response characterized by the release of a combination of proinflammatory and choriozmnionitis cytokines and chemokines in the maternal and fetal compartments Figure 2.

Diagnosis and Management of Clinical Chorioamnionitis

Aside from the risk of direct fetal infection and sepsis, the fetal inflammatory response may induce cerebral white aog injury, which may result in cerebral palsy and other short and long-term neurological deficits Figure 2.

Host defense mechanisms preventing intraamniotic infection remain poorly elucidated, but specific local host factors likely play an important role.

The cervical mucous plug as well as the placenta and membranes provide a barrier to infection of the amniotic fluid and fetus. Peroxide-producing lactobacilli in the birth canal may induce changes in the flora that impair the virulence of pathogenic organisms. Maternal fever is the most important clinical sign of chorioamnionitis.

This is because i in addition to fever, the two conditions share other major risk factors low parity and prolonged laborii epidural anesthesia masks signs of chorioamnionitis such as fundal tenderness, and iii medications given during epidural anesthesia may induce maternal or fetal tachycardia and therefore confound the diagnosis of chorioamnionitis [ 24 ].

The exact mechanism of epidural fever is unknown, but it is thought to be the result of epidural sympathetic blockade of thermoregulatory processes such as sweating [ 24 ].

This suggests that the pathologic basis for epidural fever is chorioamnionitis [ 23 ]. In sum, the concept of epidural fever remains controversial and warrants additional studies. Tachycardia may be present in the absence of chorioamnionitis and requires careful assessment for alternative etiologies. Medications such as ephedrine, antihistamines, and beta agonists may raise maternal or fetal heart rate.

Aside from the objective measurements of maternal fever and tachycardia, other chodioamnionitis of chorioamnionitis are highly subjective. Fundal tenderness is difficult to interpret in the context of the pain of labor and may be masked by analgesics including epidural or confounded by the pain associated with placental abruption.

Purulence or foul odor of amniotic fluid are more likely to be present with severe or prolonged infection and may be organism-specific, but in any case may or may not be appreciated by clinicians. Chorioamnionitis that is subclinical by definition does not present the above clinical signs but may manifest as preterm labor or, even more commonly, as preterm premature rupture of membranes PPROM. As suggested by the name, clinical chorioamnionitis is diagnosed solely based on clinical signs since access to uncontaminated amniotic fluid or placenta for culture is invasive and usually avoided.

Individual clinical criteria have variable sensitivity and low specificity for chorioamnionitis see table 2. Because of the low specificity of clinical findings a consideration of other potential sources of fever and other causes of clinical symptoms is essential for the diagnosis of chorioamnionitis [ 26 ].

In the absence of other etiologies the combination of 3 clinical criteria provides a highly accurate diagnosis of chorioamnionitis. The presence of risk factors of chorioamnionitis, especially membrane rupture, further strengthens the diagnosis.

Findings from laboratory or bedside testing may aid in ruling in or out the diagnosis of chorioamnionitis, particularly when the clinical signs and symptoms are equivocal Table 2 [ 227 — 32 ]. Recent research on proteomic analysis for diagnosing intraamniotic infection is discussed elsewhere in this series.

However, isolated leucocytosis in the absence of other signs or symptoms is of limited value since it may be induced by several other conditions including labor and steroid use.

Therefore routine monitoring of CBC in high-risk women e. Other laboratory parameters including high levels of C-reactive protein CRPlipopolysacharide binding protein LBPsoluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 sICAM 1 and interleukin 6 have been associated with a higher risk of chorioamnionitis in the setting of PPROM or preterm delivery [ 33 — 37 ].

However, their utility for the diagnosis or prediction of choriamnionitis as part of routine clinical practice is not established.

Tests on amniotic cjorioamnionitis, usually obtained by amniocentesis, have been used for the diagnosis of chorioamnionitis table 2 [ 2630 — 32 ]. Culture of amniotic fluid is the most reliable test but is of limited utility since culture results may not be available for up to 3 days. In addition, because of the invasive nature of the procedure, amniocentesis is not performed acot the majority of cases, which occur during labor. However, the value of this practice has recently been questioned [ 38 ].

Their role in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis and neonatal complications, once controversial, is now increasingly accepted [ 41 ]. These chorioamnilnitis organisms provoke a robust inflammatory reaction affecting both maternal and fetal compartments, particularly in preterm gestations [ chorioamjionitis — 42 ].

They are commonly isolated from amniotic fluid in the setting of preterm birth or premature membrane rupture with or without clinical chorioamnionitis [ 41 ]. These organisms are commonly part of the vaginal flora especially in women with bacterial vaginosis or the enteric flora E. Occasionally chorioamnionitis is the result of hematogenous spread of bacterial or viral cuorioamnionitis to the placenta.

Listeria monocytogenes infection of the fetus, which presents a pattern of both early onset and late onset neonatal sepsis similar to GBS, is presumed to be due to a hematogenous route rather than an ascending infection [ 45 ]. More research is needed to clarify the significance of individual microbes and their potential interactions in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis.

For clinical decision-making and management, however, knowing the exact organisms dhorioamnionitis in chorioamnionitis is not generally useful. Other tests on acg fluid table 2 are limited in their overall predictive abilities for chorioamnionitis although chorioamniknitis interleukin 6 and matrix metalloproteinase are more promising because of higher sensitivity and specificity [ 30 — 32 ].

The use of vaginal pool fluid after premature membrane rupture for these assessments acoy.

Histologic chorioamnionitis captures sub-clinical as well as clinical chorioamnionitis, thus it is not surprising that overall histologic chorioamnionitis at term is up to 3 times as frequent as clinical chorioamnionitis confirmed by amniotic fluid culture [ 47 ]. This is chorioamnionnitis part because cultures for genital mycoplasmas, the most common organisms associated with chorioamnionitis, are not very sensitive.

Subclinical chorioamnionitis and non-infectious inflammation also contribute to this discrepancy. Consequently, depending on the criteria used and maternal cohrioamnionitis including ethnicity and type of laborthe prevalence of chorioamnionitis based on placental pathology varies widely. On the other hand, clinical chorioamnionitis is not uniformly confirmed on pathologic evaluation.

For these reasons, placental pathology should be performed to confirm suspected chorioamnionitis even if amniotic fluid culture is negative. The pathologic finding of funisitis inflammation of the umbilical cord is even more concerning than chorioamnionitis alone as it represents a fetal response to infection.

Several other conditions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chorioamnionitis. In the intrapartum patient with an epidural and low-grade fever without tachycardia maternal or fetal or other clinical signs of intrauterine inflammation, epidural-associated fever is a strong consideration.

Extrauterine infections can cause fever and abdominal pain, either during or in absence of labor, including urinary tract infection pyelonephritisinfluenza, appendicitis, and pneumonia. Non-infectious conditions associated with abdominal pain usually in absence of fever include thrombophlebitis, round ligament pain, colitis, connective tissue disorders and placental abruption.

Clinical chorioamnionitis carries adverse consequences affecting both the woman and her infant Figure 2. Chorioamnionitis leads to a 2 to 3-fold increased risk for cesarean delivery and 2 to 4-fold increase in endomyometritis, wound infection, pelvic abscess, bacteremia and postpartum hemorrhage [ 1253 — 56 ]. The increase in postpartum hemorrhage appears to be due to dysfunctional uterine muscle contractions as a result of inflammation [ 54 — 55 ].

Ten percent of women with chorioamnionitis have positive blood cultures bacteremia most commonly involving GBS and E. Fortunately, however, septic shock, disseminated intravascular coagululation, adult respiratory distress syndrome and maternal death are only rarely encountered[ 57 ]. Fetal exposure to infection may lead to fetal death, neonatal sepsis and numerous other postnatal complications Figure 2.

The histopathologic hallmarks of FIRS are funisitis and chorionic vasculitis [ 60 ]. FIRS is now recognized to represent the fetal immune response to infection or injury mediated by the release of cytokines and chemokines such as interleukins, TNF-alpha, C-reactive protein, and matrix melloproteinases [ 59 ]. FIRS has also been linked to preterm labor culminating in perinatal death Figure 2 and is associated, particularly among preterm neonates, with multi-organ injury, including chronic lung disease, periventricular leucomalacia and cerebral palsy, [ 62 — 64 ] Although FIRS may occur in the setting of non-infectious inflammation, its magnitude tends to be significantly more robust with documented infection [ 61 ] Although somewhat controversial, fetal exposure to genital mycoplasmas U.

The neonate exposed to intrauterine infection and inflammation may show adverse effects at or shortly after birth.

Adverse outcomes may include perinatal death, asphyxia, early onset choriooamnionitis sepsis, septic shock, pneumonia, intraventricular hemorrhage IVHcerebral white matter damage, and long-term disability including cerebral palsy [ 69 — 74 ].

Preterm infants have an even chodioamnionitis rate of complications of chorioamnionitis than term infants, including perinatal death 25 vs. Chorioamnionitis is also well-established as a risk factor for long-term neurodevelopmental disability especially when it occurs prior to term [ 275 — 79 ]. In term and near-term infants it is associated with a 4-fold increase in the frequency of cerebral palsy [ 76 — 77 ].

Prompt initiation of antibiotic therapy is essential to prevent both maternal and fetal complications in the setting of clinical chorioamnionitis [ 2 ]. Time -to-delivery after institution of antibiotic therapy has been shown to not affect morbidities; therefore cesarean section to expedite delivery is not indicated for chorioamnionitis unless there are other obstetric chorioamninitis [ chorioamnionitls5378 ]. Evidence from randomized trials and observational studies demonstrate that immediate intrapartum use of broad-spectrum antibiotics significantly reduces maternal and fetal complications of chorioamnionitis [ 79 — 83 ].

The optimal antibiotic regimen for treatment of clinical chorioamnionitis has not been well-studied and current recommendations are based largely on clinical consensus [ 83 ]. Intravenous administration of ampicillin every 6 hours and gentamicin every 8—24 hours until delivery is the typical regimen [ 83 — 84 ]. If cesarean delivery is performed, clindamycin every 8 hours or metronidazole is often added for anaerobic coverage. Acob, although genital mycoplasmas are the most commonly isolated organisms associated with chorioamnionitis, the standard antibiotic regimens used for clinical chorioamnionitis do not provide optimal coverage against these organisms.

Clindamycin does provide coverage against mycoplasma hominis but none choriaomnionitis the 3 standard antibiotics is effective against ureaplasma species which is the most common group associated with infection. Supportive measures include the use of antipyretics acetaminophen.

This is particularly important during chorioamnionitie intrapartum period since fetal acidosis in the setting of fever has been associated with a marked increase in the incidence of neonatal encephalopathy [ 87 ]. Maternal fever even in the absence of documented fetal acidosis is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, particularly neonatal encephalopathy, though it is unclear to what extent the etiology of the fever rather than the fever itself is causative [ 88 ].

Intrapartum Management of Intraamniotic Infection – ACOG

Treating intrapartum fever with antipyretics may also be helpful in reducing fetal tachycardia thereby avoiding the tendency to perform cesarean for a non-reassuring fetal status. Antibiotics have also been shown to reduce the incidence of clinical or pathologic chorioamnionitis and neonatal sepsis and to prolong time-to-delivery among women with preterm membrane rupture managed expectantly but not among those in active preterm labor with intact membranes in whom maternal infection was reduced [ 89 chorioamnnionitis 91 ].

The authors speculated that the findings could be due to chance or to maintenance of the fetus in a milieu with suppressed choriaomnionitis eradicated subclinical infection given the low dose and oral route of antibiotics [ 92 — 93 ].


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It is really difficult to decide which one to buy between dbx X and dbx XT, I have done lots of research on the forum: Some people said. 0% Financing, ✅ FREE Shipping, and ✅ FREE Warranty for your dbx X! In the world of compressor/limiters, the X is one of the standard – and with good . Description. The X is probably the best-known of the classic dbx compressors. The original was a half-width 2U box and the X was the first of the.

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Log in Become a member. Subscribe to our free newsletter Subscribe. Write a user review Ask for a user review. Not satisfied with those reviews? Request a new review. Our members also liked: Sort by most recent most useful. If you hit this compressor with a very hard signal you will hear the compression and the sound of the unit.

The sound of the unit is not what I want in a compressor for all things. I used this for very specific instruments such as snare drum or at times a kick drum, but not on vocals.

For vocals, even at a mere 2: I don’t think you would want this for studio applications. I would buy a better compressor such as the Empirical Labs or a really high end unit. The unit lay out is about as simple as you can get. Threshold, ratio, output, bypass I have seen many young producers use this compressor and use it the wrong way.

For the price it is a bit high for my liking and I would not get this unit for the studio but that is my opinion and I am sure that there are many studios that use them in-house for vocals and other instruments but for me it is way to compressed sounding even on a light ratio and with not much input gain it can be dgx. I tried it on bass guitar a few times and it is really a great unit for that but that was live and when I used it for vocals live bdx picks up so much bleed that I had to go back to using it for bass and guitars.

When I have tried it in the studio it really does not sound like some of my compressors that cost about the same. I like the Blue Tube better vbx the studio personally. If you have not it will be confusing.

The manual will only help you if you know compression and how much to use or not to use. I only like DBX on bass guitar or snare.

The hardest hitting instruments. I also use it on kick or room mics. If you like colored compressor this unit will suffice but if your not use to compression this will be over your head.

DBX has a very distinct and so you have to be very careful as to how much to use. I have tried this on Live Sound and snare is the most common use for it or in a guitar rig it is great. I have seen a lot of them in guitar racks for some time. If you are not use to the sound of the DBX compressors it is very distinguishable to my ears. I love DBX for live but not my favorite in the studio. For this rbx I would shop around for a studio compressor.

Did you find this review helpful? This analog limiter is a 610x able unit that can also be used as a compressor as well.

This unit is a high quality piece of gear and should not be over looked especially if you need a great limiter. This limiter can not be compared to a software limiter because it is just so much better than any software limiter to me.

I have been using this limiter off and on for bout 7 years now, im not sure when it was created probably way before I started using it but comparing it to any software limiters is a mistake.

All user reviews for the dbx 160X

Nothing will give you great compression and limiting like the dbx x can. Using this unit you wont be able just to click on different limiting presets and compression presets.

You will have a lot of control over your music but you can do the same with software as well except the software limiters just arent as good, unless you spend a ton of money on a limiter and compression plug in and in that case the dbx x would be cheaper to go with because it is not expensive at all anymore.

I hardly never use a software limiter or compressor if im in the main studio or even at home most of the time. It has XLR connections in the back and is rackable – it will take up a single rack space.

DBX X: Signal Processors/Rack Effects | eBay

The metering is smartly made and the bright LEDs help you to see exactly where you level is at. It has a knob to set the threshold, a knob to set the output gain, and a knob for compressor ratio. It then has a buttons for bypass and to change the display of the metering. I don’t have a manual for this so I don’t know if it helpful or not, but the unit is easy enough bdx use 160d most shouldn’t need it except maybe during set up or troubleshooting.

It is good for drums and guitars, but lacks the full quality I would look for in a vocal compressor. It is nice to have a few of these at once while you are tracking if you like to track drums with compression.

While this isn’t the best sounding compressor out there, it is very solid and works great for drums. The price is what will draw most to these, as they are quite cheap, but not cheap enough that they can be considered an entry level compressor. These definitely sound better than the dbx andbut is a bit more expensive than both.

If you are looking for some compressor that are a reasonable price and sound good, the dbx X is worth a look. Everything has been said, it’s a great machine. On bass and percussion. Modif easy to do for qq’un who really knows a bit of soldering components. Purchased on ebay usa, from a vendor that I know. A super mono compressor, stupid: Over a button-easy 1600x a more gradual compression, and a bypass, a truth, which directly connects the input jack to output jack.

Stereo linkable with a simple TRS. A function that is often overlooked: On this terminal, there is a jumper between the compressor inlet and the detection input: On the A 10x, this entry exists in jack, the terminal has disappeared.

User reviews: dbx X – Audiofanzine

There are two versions X: And A are made in China We chose a ratio, and adjust 160z Threshold watching small LEDs that work well: Finally, we can give a little gain with the last pot. Live, it’s happiness can not hope to find a compressor that adjusts so quickly sbx that sounds all the time. If you use two X stereo from time to time, you can leave the jack coupling continuously. When you need it, it triggers the button “slave” on one of two compressors, and it made all the settings on the other.

Not only does it once the settings for both, but it behaves like a “real” stereo: There are other very real compressors, much more expensive as the or the dbxLA2A This X has no color, it gets bigger, it wakes up the details buried in his home, but added nothing.

Dbd output gain is monstrous: This machine gives an impression of “his own”. The over-easy is the voice or if you just want to smooth the level of an instrument 106x audible compression effect. Once it was removed, it was a more punchy, more honest with attacks. For cuts of pork, we can push beyond the ratio of the infinite! And have a sound sbx loses the level when it exceeds the threshold.

And then pump it damn, if that’s what we’re looking There are other hardware compressors that attract me much, but they are so much more expensive Mono Analog Compressor Rack 1U in height. I have not read the manual, it’s stuff that “feels”, I mixed the bdx weekend with and I wonder if I’ll really take the trouble to read the manual I mainly placed above the bass, then taken to 160c mix with a different setting each time.

It is true that we hear a clear improvement when going through something. I think back to others later, because it does not cost too much to chance SOUND QUALITY The compression effect is very well “calibrated” I’ll try dbd pass bass drums and snare to see rbx it looks but I’m pretty confident in the outcome Both bassists who have used it in the studio were both thrilled, one playing rock vintage, the other Hard, each with a different setting, were able to make their own sound The sound comes off fairly well with the Bass Drum which itself goes into a via a bus the tablewhich is exactly what I was looking He had with him-among others-2 dbx X.

He mixed all of his guitars in a stereo bus dedicated to this pair of compressors. It was a “big sound”, but not bold or aggressive, just the guitars were much more dxb, all the time, no color, no further aggression According to the titles I have to mix, they serve me on any style of source vocals, bass drums, guitars, bass, synths, organ, One of my friends told me that ingestion front of people “known” Veronique Sanson and others used it on each slice of the table, but also on their table every ride!!

To describe the somewhat “universal Swiss Army knife” of the craft I own or have owned a few compressors: And this is not the case autrezs “big” references What I like least: Value for money monstrous dnx between and Euros I want to buy many more!

Rackable For the English doc is here: I did not have the manual but I found the site DBX see abovethere is also that of the A same thing but easier to read in English only.


Ayuno racional para el rejuvenecimiento físico, mental y espiritual. Front Cover. Arnold Ehret. Kier, – Diet therapy – 94 pages. Buy Ayuno racional by Arnold Ehret, Basilio Norberto Tucci Romero (ISBN: ) from Amazon’s Book Store. Everyday low prices and free delivery. Buy Sistema curativo por dieta amucosa by Arnold Ehret, Basilio Norberto Tucci Ayuno racional Arnold Ehret: Anotado revisado y editado por el Prof. Spira.

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Arnold Ehret died ehert early As far as I can tell all Ehret books but one were published after his death, some by Benedict Lust and some by Fred Hirsch.

Ayno Lust descendants and the Hirsch descendants are still engaged in legal actions over who “owns” this material. I have obtained a rare copy of his The Definitive Cure of Constipation, which came out in By date of publication it is certainly public domain material under the laws of its country of original issue.

If the reader will take careful note of Ehret’s unpolished writing style in this booklet and compare it to the other Ehret materials issued posthumously they might, as I do, wonder who really wrote the newer stuff. I have previously been threatened with lawsuit for providing “Ehret’s” Mucusless Diet Healing System and Rational Fasting on this website. The threats came from interests connected with the Lust publications.

These titles were immediately withdrawn upon receipt racioonal these threats. Such threats could not have been made if any edition of the original title had been published prior toas the material would have clearly been public domain.

If I could but lay hands on any Ehret publication issued and dated prior to I would be delighted to put these titles online. Under the laws of Australia, Ehret IS already public domain, as his copyright expired 50 years after racjonal death However, I am not willing to deal with aggressive legal actions from those deep-pocketed claimants and their American lawyers to ownership of these materials.

Ehret Arnold – Ayuno Racional Pdf

It seems to me that there is something about “Ehret” that lends to antagonistic faction and disputiveness. So I am asking the patrons of Soil and Health Library to assist me and rwcional world as a whole. If you have one, please contact me. Meanwhile, enjoy his The Definitive Cure of Constipation.

Dem Autor folgen

Title Mucusless diet healing system; a scientific method of eating your way to health. Title Physical fitness thru a superior diet, fasting and dietetics: Bibliography Note Includes bibliographical references and index.

Subject Topical Diet therapy. Physical Description 15 p.

General Note Cover title. Physical Description 14 p.

Ayuno Racional : Arnaldo Ehret :

Contents Note The internal uncleanliness of man — The effect of laxatives — The real cause of constipation — Nourishing and curing “laxatives” — Conclusion.

Raiconal, Document: Literatura Ehret y Co. Benedict Lust Publications, Document: Paris, Maloine, Document: Ehret Literature, Document: Valeri, Document: Arnold Ehret’s mucusless-diet healing system.

A complete course for those who desire to learn how to control their health. Los Angeles, Ehret Literature Pub.

Paris, Aryana Document: Also, Health and happiness through fasting, by Fred S. Lust Publications Document:


Blog T+ Sneijder hoopt ‘in wat voor functie dan .. en Ons Etten-Leur . De vrederechter is vrij te beslissen wat als een gewettigde onthouding dient te worden beschouwd en wat niet. Binnen acht dagen na de. Na vele jaren eindelijk weer een Bekeuring, dit keer uit Oostenrijk. Het gaat om Wat te doen? . Nu al geruime tijd niets meer van gehoord.

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Inzet politiecamera’s bij bellende automobilisten roept nodige vragen op | De Volkskrant

De niet-Belgen daarentegen hebben een stemrecht. Om deel te nemen aan de verkiezingen moeten ze zich eerst laten inschrijven op de kiezerslijst doormiddel van het aanvraagformulier. Hun vermelding op de kiezerslijst roept voor hen de stemplicht in het leven. Indien iemand die op de kiezerslijst staat niet zelf kan gaan stemmen op de dag van de verkiezing kan hij of zij stemmen bij volmacht.

Niet gaan stemmen is slechts strafbaar indien het gaat om een niet gewettigde onthouding. De vrederechter is vrij te beslissen wat als een gewettigde onthouding dient te worden beschouwd en wat niet. Binnen acht dagen na de afkondiging van de namen van de gekozenen maakt de procureur des Konings de lijst op van de kiezers die niet aan de stemming hebben deelgenomen en wier verschoning niet is aangenomen.

De kiezer die niet aan zijn stemplicht voldaan heeft, verschijnt op een eenvoudige oproeping voor de politierechtbank, die beslist zonder mogelijkheid van beroep.

De toepasselijke straf voor een eerste inbreuk bestaat uit een berisping of een geldboete van 30 tot 60 euro. In geval van herhaling loopt deze geldboete op van 60 tot euro.

Indien de niet gewettigde onthouding ten minste vier maal voorkomt binnen vijftien jaar, wordt de kiezer voor tien jaar van de kiezerslijsten geschrapt en kan hij gedurende die tijd geen benoeming, bevordering of onderscheiding krijgen van een openbare overheid. Gelet op de stemplicht schrijft u dus best zo snel mogelijk naar de vrederechter van uw kanton en legt u uit om welke redenen u niet heeft kunnen stemmen als u niet persoonlijk heeft kunnen stemmen of geen volmacht heeft kunnen verlenen.

In het nieuws

Bij dit schrijven dient u desgevallend de bewijsstukken te voegen, waarover u beschikt. Binnen de acht dagen na de afkondiging van de namen van de verkozenen maakt de Procureur des Konings de lijst op van de kiezers die niet aan de stemming hebben deelgenomen en wiens verschoning niet is aangenomen.

De kiezer die niet aan zijn stemplicht heeft voldaan, moet door een bekehrd oproeping voor de politierechtbank verschijnen, die uitspraak doet zonder dat er een beroepsmogelijkheid is. Hierbij dient opgemerkt te worden dat de stemplicht automatisch geldt voor de Belgen, hekeurd ook voor de niet-Belgen die de erkenning van de hoedanigheid van kiezer bekomen hebben. Op de dag van de verkiezingen ben ik met verlof aan de Belgische kust.

Ik had reeds een appartement gehuurd. Ben ik verplicht te gaan stemmen of volstaat een attest van de verhuurder van het appartement? Hiervoor wordt geen vrijstelling toegestaan. Ik ben niet gaan stemmen omdat ik op de dag van de verkiezingen in het buitenland zat, en ik heb ook niemand volmacht gegeven.

Wat moet ik nu doen? Indien u niet persoonlijk bent gaan stemmen en geen volmacht hebt kunnen verlenen, schrijft u best zo vlug mogelijk naar de vrederechter van uw kanton en legt u uit om welke reden u niet kon gaan stemmen.

Bij dit schrijven dienen de bewijsstukken waarover u beschikt gevoegd te worden. Ik ben 18 jaar en ik heb nog nooit gestemd. Ik heb wel gehoord over een inschrijvingsformulier. Zou ik daar gebruik kunnen van maken? Wat moet ik daarvoor doen?

Ik ben onderdaan van een lidstaat van de Europese Unie en ben gedomicilieerd in Brussel. Ik heb me ingeschreven teneinde te kunnen stemmen voor de vorige gemeenteraadsverkiezingen. Moet ik me opnieuw inschrijven of is mijn vorige inschrijving nog geldig?

Je kan nu online je bekeuring betalen (en je flitsfoto bekijken) : thenetherlands

De erkenning van de hoedanigheid van kiezer blijft geldig zolang de betreffende persoon aan de kiesvoorwaarden blijft voldoen, in welke Belgische gemeente hij ook verblijft. Eens men de erkenning om deel te nemen aan de gemeenteraadsverkiezingen heeft verkregen, dient men geen nieuwe aanvraag in te dienen om deel te kunnen nemen aan latere gemeenteraadsverkiezingen.

Men is in dit geval trouwens verplicht te gaan stemmen. Ik moet op de zondag van de verkiezingen werken. Mijn bekeutd wil me geen uur vrijaf geven of wil dat uur niet betalen om te gaan stemmen. Hij zegt dat ik maar iemand volmacht moet geven. Het is inderdaad zo dat wanneer iemand verhinderd is om te gaan stemmen omwille van beroepsredenen, men best volmacht kan verlenen aan iemand anders.

User account menu Inloggen. De stemming Waarom stemmen?

Stemplicht Wie mag stemmen? Belgen Onderdanen van een lidstaat van de Europese Brkeurd Onderdanen van een staat die geen lidstaat is van de Europese Unie Hoe stemmen? De stemplicht geldt automatisch voor de kiesgerechtigde Belgen. Politiek interesseert me niet. Ben ik verplicht te gaan stemmen?


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Author Patrik Schumacher offers innovative treatment that enriches architectural theory with a coordinated arsenal of concepts facilitating both detailed analysis and insightful comparisons with other domains, such as art, science and politics.

He explores how the various modes of communication comprising architecture depend upon each other, combine, and form a unique subsystem of society that co-evolves with other important autopoietic subsystems like art, science, politics and the economy. The first of two volumes that together present a autopoiesi account of architecture’s autopoiesis, this book elaborates the theory of architecture?

Each of the 50 sections poses a thesis drawing a central message from the insights articulated within the respective section. The chapters are gathering and sorting the accumulated intelligence of the discipline according to the new conceptual framework adopted, in order to catalyze and elaborate the new formulations and insights that are then encapsulated in the theses.

However, while the theoretical work in the text of the chapters relies on the rigorous build up of a new theoretical language, the theses are written in ordinary language?

The full list of the 50 theses affords a convenient summary printed as appendix at the end of the book. The second volume completes the analysis of the discourse and further proposes a new agenda for contemporary architecture in response to the challenges and opportunities that confront architectural design within the context of current societal and technological developments. Request permission to patriik content from this site.

The Autopoiesis of Architecture, Volume Sxhumacher A New Framework for Architecture. Added to Your Shopping Cart. Description Take a theoretical approach to architecture with The Autopoiesis of Architecturewhich presents the topic as a discipline with its own unique logic. Architecture’s conception of itself is addressed as well as its development within wider contemporary society. He studied philosophy and architecture in Bonn, London and Stuttgart, where he received his architectural Diploma in Patrik Schumacher joined Zaha Hadid in Since then Zaha Hadid Architects has expanded from a small studio to a global firm employing over architects.

Patrik Schumacher’s career continues to integrate practice and theory. His contribution to the discourse of contemporary architecture is also evident in his prior writings, such as Digital Hadid, as well as in his curatorial work for exhibitions, such as Latent UtopiasGraz, Patrok essays are available onwww.

The Autopoiesis of Architecture, Volume I: A New Framework for Architecture

Permissions Request permission to reuse content from this site. Table of contents Preface. Architecture as Autopoietic System.

The Origin of the Discipline in the Italian Renaissance. Cumulative vs Revolutionary Periods. archktecture

Parametricism and the Autopoiesis of Architecture

Coping with an Expanding Universe of Possibility. Autonomy, Hard Core, Heuristics. Hard Core and Heuristics.

The Productive Vagueness of the Medium. The Time Structure of the Architectural Project. ComparativeMatrix of Societal Function Systems.


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UIScrollView is an incredibly useful control for iOS development, so it’s not At the very same time, it seems pretty logical to change the. This doesn’t have to be a UIView specifically, but should be . then change the View Controller Scene’s Simulated size to Freeform, and the. In this UIScrollView tutorial you’ll learn how to zoom large images, Now suppose you want to change PhotoScroll to display the image at the.

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I am a Senior Software consultant at Atomic Object. Lately, I’ve been working on iOS projects.

Using UIScrollView with Auto Layout in iOS

Since the introduction of Auto Layout to iOS, there is a new way you can configure your scrolling content.

With Auto Layout, the amount of code you have to write is greatly reduced. One of the big pain points with the old way of setting up a UIScrollView was communicating the content size to the scroll view. It was fairly uiscrolliew to calculate your content size if the content in the UIScrollView was an image. But uizcrollview was not as easy if your scroll view included a mixed bag of buttons, labels, custom views, and text fields. Lengthy code adjustments were conert to reflect constant changes in device rotations and phone size differences.

I will also show you how the scroll view can move your content out of the way of the pop-up keyboard. I want to give you a sense of what we are building so you can follow along and see how the view is constructed. I created a view with some labels, text fields, and an image. If you want to follow along, I put the entire project on GitHub.

Here is what it should look like in portrait and landscape. For demo purposes, I colored the scroll view with a yellow background and the content inside with a blue background. When in portrait mode, the content will not scroll. In landscape mode, the content can scroll vertically especially when the keyboard covers up most of the view.

Now add some constraints to your scroll view to place it where you want it in your main view. Your view hierarchy should look like the image to the right. The following are the four constraints that I added to get the scroll view constrained to the super view. Your constraints may look different if you do not want the scroll view to occupy the entire screen.

The next step in laying out our uiscrolliew is to create a single child view of the UIScrollView where we will put all of our content. Using a single child view will simplify the constraints we have to add later. If your content is only a scrolling image in a UIImageView, this can serve as the single child view. In the example below, I gave the child view a name of Content View.

Our next step is to add constraints from the content view to the scroll view.

The change they made to UIScrollView uisxrollview, to support Auto Layout, is that it can automatically calculate the content size if you set up your constraints the right way. It does this in two ways. Go ahead and add the top, bottom, leading, and trailing constraints from the content view to the scroll view. When finished, you will notice we are getting some Auto Layout errors.

How to adjust a UIScrollView to fit the keyboard

Without any controls inside the content uiscrollvew, or if there are no placeholder width and height constraints on yiscrollview content view, the scroll view cannot determine the content size.

The next step is to add whatever content you want to scroll inside the content view and use Auto Layout to constrain the items inside the content view. Make sure you have constraints attached to all four sides of the content view so that it will expand to the size of your content. If you need to, you can increase the simulated size of your view controller in interface builder uiscrol,view give you room to layout all of your scrolling content. To do this click on the view controller, select the size inspector and select Freeform size.

I added a few labels and text fields to get started. Remember that I colored the content view blue and the scroll view yellow. Content uuscrollview the vertical direction — in both portrait and landscape views — is working because the height of my content view is explicit by stacking one control on top of another. But as you can see, I have a problem in the horizontal direction. I am fully constrained in the horizontal direction, however since UITextFields do not have an intrinsic content size, without any text inside them, my view is collapsed.

iOS: Maintaining Content Offset When The Size Of Your UIScrollView Changes

I need some way to expand my content view in the horizontal direction to fill the width of the device. I could hard code a width constraint, but uisccrollview will only work for portrait or landscape and not both.

Now, when we run, we get the correct behavior in portrait and landscape. The content view will get its width from the main view, and all of the content inside the content view will stretch in the horizontal direction. If you have UITextFields near the bottom of uiscrollfiew content view and the keyboard pops up, it blocks the bottom half of your screen; you cannot see what you are typing.

The scroll view allows us to scroll the content into view. We first need to keep track of which text field is currently being edited. Now we can implement a couple of delegate functions to keep track of which field is active. We do this to make sure that the active field is visible when the keyboard pops up.

Now we need to register for keyboard notifications. In the viewDidLoad function, add the view controller as an observer.

Do not forget to unregister from these events when you are transitioning away from your view controller. Finally, add an outlet to your scroll view and implement the keyboard notification uiscroplview.

As the final step, I check to see if the active text field is visible and scroll the field into view if it is not. Once you start editing a text field, the keyboard animates into view, and your scroll view animates the active text field to be above the keyboard.

If you would like to try this code out yourself to see it in action, I have the entire project on GitHub.

By commenting below, you agree to the terms and conditions outlined in our linked Privacy Policy. Very good and clear post: I lost two days trying to understand what the Apple documentation intended as always, the Apple docs are clear if you know the subject! Hi MikeHow can i Set constrain when my scrollview contain view which has greater height than scrollview? Hello, Aman, Your question is old, but I am answering in case another person needs to find the answer.

I am now in the process of learning iOS, and I can say with authority, that the iOS layout system is just about the most pathetic vomit I have ever seen inflicted on the development community. I stumbled upon this page when trying to figure out what was going on with the UiScrollView, and wanted uiscrolview say thanks. XCODE is a joke. The SDK is a joke. Objective-C is a joke. When iPhone is as irrelevant as Blackberry in five years, it should come as a surprise to no one.

What a horrible uicrollview platform. Jack, you are wrong. Sounds like you are merely having a problem learning it. I kind of feel the uiscrkllview way. From all platforms, the iOS layout system is unnecessarily complicated. There seems to be a bug in the keyboardDidShow method. Have you tried using a visual inspection tool like http: My guess is you have some other layout issue. Was the intent also to scroll the controls if there were a lot of controls on the form?

Then it stopped working. Although the keyboard substance of the post does work. However I would assume if you had controls uiscrollvie of view it would allow the user to scroll to them. Perhaps I did something wrong. In my sample, the content will scroll if there is not enough space to show all of the content. For instance if you rotate the phone to landscape or in portrait mode if you have a 3. In your code, check the following things. Do you have one child content view of the scroll view?

Are there leading, trailing, top, and bottom constraints binding the content view to the scroll view this will tell the scroll view your content size? Is your content view the correct size at runtime? Perhaps you have an explicit width or height that is not marked as placeholder.

You can either NSLog some sizes at runtime or use a tool, like spark inspector, to visually see how the parts of your UI are rendered. I have precious little hair left, so tearing out further hair wondering why my content only stretched halfway across the scroll view horizontally was not proving constructive.

UIScrollView Tutorial: Getting Started

I found this really helpful. I am using a navigationBar with my project. It was easy to allow for it in the code.

Thank convrt for this article. Here is a link to a tech note TN article by Apple. Look at the section titled Pure Auto Layout Approach and read the third bullet. It was not easy to find, which is why I thought the subject would make for a good blog post. Now it makes sense. Thank you very much.

I have a uiview pinned to uicsrollview main view, inside of this I have a scroll view. The scrollview is pinned to its parent view.


Bjorn Gehle wrote a detailed examination of the ACICA Rules. The Arbitration Rules of the Australian Centre for International Commercial. These rules (“Rules”) are the rules of arbitration of the Australian Centre for InternationalCommercial Arbitration. This changed significantly in when ACICA launched its own institutional arbitration rules, known as the ACICA Arbitration Rules (“ACICA Rules” or “Rules ”).

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We look at how Australia keeps up to date with international best practice by amendments to ACICA arbitral rules and international arbitration laws; potential improvements and innovations identified in the Queen Mary University of London International Arbitration Survey; the investor-state dispute settlement mechanism under the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement; and in Hong Kong, increasing support for third party arbitration funding and the introduction of arbitrator ‘report cards’.

The Australian Centre for International Commercial Arbitration has recently updated their arbitration rules. The changes are in response to recent developments in the region and bring the rules into line with the best practice of other international arbitration centres. International arbitration in Australia has grown significantly in recent years. Australia is, now more so than ever, well placed to serve as a seat for international arbitration, with a now well-developed and tried and tested legislative framework that supports the fair and efficient resolution of disputes by means of arbitration and the enforceability of arbitral awards produced through arbitration.

Businesses engaged in international trade and commerce may specify certain institutional rules to be applied in the event that a dispute is referred to arbitration. ACICA aims to facilitate and promote fair and efficient resolution of disputes by arbitration where Australia is the seat for arbitration. ACICA periodically reviews and updates its rules to ensure that they reflect international best practice and continue to best serve the needs of its users.

ACICA has also tidied the rules by attending to some important, albeit minor, ‘housekeeping’ matters.

These changes are not expected to have any significant effect on arbitration practice. The latest changes by ACICA are valuable reforms that will serve to better meet the needs of those engaged in international trade and commerce.

Asian Dispute Review – Kluwer Law Online

While the changes are not completely uniform with the rules of other institutions and contain subtle differences arbitdation approach, the changes modernise the rules in a way that administers more effective arbitration proceedings where multiple parties, similar disputes or ambiguities may be involved.

On 13 Octoberthree significant amendments to the International Arbitration Act Cth came into force. They relate to the enforcement of foreign arbitral awards, the confidentiality of arbitral proceedings and the resistance of enforcement on the basis of incapacity. Lawyer Evan Lacey reports. Now, following the recent amendments, any arbitral award is, subject to the usual grounds for challenge, enforceable in Australia, regardless of the country in which it was made.

Awards made in these countries will now be enforceable in Australia. Confidentiality is widely recognised as a key advantage of arbitration. The previous position under the IAA required parties to specifically ‘opt-in’ to gain the benefit of the IAA’s confidentiality provisions.

Asian Dispute Review

This position has now been reversed so that the default position is that proceedings are confidential, unless the parties opt out. Under the current provisions of the IAA, a party can resist the enforcement of an arbitral award on the basis that it is under an incapacity at the time the arbitration agreement was made. The recent amendments to the IAA mean that the incapacity of either the award debtor or the award creditor may justify the refusal to enforce a foreign award.

These amendments ensure that the IAA remains consistent with current international best practice and that Australia remains an attractive seat for arbitrations in the region.

In OctoberQueen Mary University of London released its latest comprehensive survey about the use of international arbitration. The survey sheds light on international arbitration trends and examines improvements and innovations in the arbitral process.

The survey was conducted through questionnaires and personal interviews. The survey noted the continuing popularity of international arbitration with 90 per cent of respondents indicating that it was their preferred dispute resolution mechanism for resolving cross-border disputes.

The enforceability of awards was viewed as the most valuable characteristic, and confidentiality and privacy were of particular importance to in-house counsel. The worst-perceived features of international arbitration were its cost 68 per cent of respondents and the lack of effective sanctions during the arbitral process 46 per cent of respondents.

London 47 per cent and Paris 38 per cent were rated highest as the most preferred seats for international arbitration, with respondents indicating that reputation and recognition were the main drivers behind their selection of a seat.

More interestingly, the survey found Singapore and Hong Kong to be the most improved arbitral seats. This was largely due to improved hearing facilities, availability of qualified arbitrators with a degree of familiarity of the seat and improved local arbitral institutions.

The results suggest that both of these regional seats may continue to attract a greater number of international arbitrations users. Even though respondents identified the length and cost of international arbitration as its most problematic features, they did not select a clear winner when presented with a list of potential innovations to control those issues.

The best perceived innovation was a requirement that tribunals commit to a timetable for deliberations and the delivery of the final award, which may have the effect of motivating arbitrators and providing greater certainty to parties. The survey also analysed the use of emergency arbitrators in the context of reducing time and cost and found that 66 per cent of respondents had no experience with emergency arbitrations.

While more respondents indicated that they would prefer domestic courts for seeking urgent relief, 26 per cent of respondents were undecided.

The reluctance to use emergency arbitrators appears to revolve around the enforceability of emergency arbitration decisions, which may vary across jurisdictions and may be time-consuming and unpredictable. Nevertheless, a surprisingly large majority of respondents 93 per cent expressed a preference for arbitral institutions to include in their rules provisions relating to emergency arbitrations.

Combined with the high proportion of respondents who were undecided about the use of emergency arbitrators, this result suggests potential growth in this area. If you need to seek urgent relief before the constitution of the arbitral tribunal, which of the following options would generally be your preferred course assuming that the same relief will be available in each case?

This is consistent with statistics released by arbitral institutions such as SIAC and HKIAC which have indicated a rising use of emergency arbitrators in regional seats. Between 1 July aacica 1 OctoberSIAC received 46 emergency arbitration applications, of which relief was granted in 27 applications riles per cent. In Australia, a statutory provision allowing courts to enforce interim awards of arbitral tribunals section 17H of the International Arbitration Act Cth coupled with provisions in the ACICA rules to facilitate emergency arbitration are likely to result in increased use of emergency arbitrators.

Respondents also saw adbitration counsel as having a role in reducing time and cost, in particular suggesting that cooperation with opposing counsel could be improved to narrow issues and limit document production. In addition, in-house counsel wanted arbitration counsel to further encourage settlements, including by using mediation during an arbitration. On that note, the survey shows that mediation remains a much lesser used method for resolving cross-border disputes and the idea of having an arbitration run concurrently with a separate mediation for the same dispute was unsurprisingly not favoured by respondents.

While 70 per cent of respondents thought that there was a sufficient level of regulation in international arbitration, many indicated that certain rlues, including third party funders 71 per centarbitrators 55 per cent and tribunal secretaries 68 per cent should be the arbifration of greater regulation. A majority of in-house counsel 68 per cent also favoured ruls regulation of party representative conduct. The survey noted that the use of third party funding in international arbitrations appears to be a growing phenomenon.

Around 39 per cent arnitration respondents indicated that they had encountered third party funding in practice, with 12 per cent stating that they had used such funding. While third party funding was viewed in a neutral light by about half of the respondents, 71 per cent of respondents indicated that third party funding should aciac regulated, with recommended proposals ranging from the use of guidelines, codes of conduct to individual self-regulation.

Having said that, a number of interviewees stated that regulation should focus more on disclosure rather than the establishment of a prescriptive, substantive regime. This would allow tribunals to handle potential issues relating to third party funding on a case-by-case basis.

A clear majority of respondents 71 per cent believed that arbitratiin was undesirable for the full terms of third party funding arrangements to be subject to mandatory disclosure, although they did believe that certain aspects of third party funding should be mandatorily disclosed.

These included disclosure of the use of third party funding 76 per cent and the identity of the funder 63 per cent to increase transparency and assist with conflicts of interest checks. Should it be mandatory for a claimant to make disclosure of each of the following? Respondents had mixed preferences for the manner in which arbitrator conduct should be regulated.

Suggestions included the use of instruments issued by arbitral institutions 23 per centa code of conduct by a professional body 22 per cent and databases providing information about arbitrator performance 21 per cent. It is noteworthy that 63 per cent of respondents indicated that ‘issue conflicts’, where an arbitrator has previously taken a particular position on an issue to be decided in the case, did not require specific regulation in commercial abritration.

In comparison, respondents were more divided as to whether issue conflicts should be regulated arbitrstion the context of investment treaty arbitrations. A clear majority of respondents considered repeat appointments of arbitrators to be problematic in both commercial and investment treaty arbitrations.

Notwithstanding that, they felt that further regulation was not necessary as current instruments offered adequate assistance to deal with this issue. Tribunal secretaries were widely used by respondents 82 per cent and their role was generally positively perceived, with interviewees indicating that tribunal secretaries improved the efficiency of arbitral proceedings and should be more frequently offered by arbitral institutions. Most respondents however preferred tribunal secretaries to only complete administrative tasks and 70 per cent of respondents preferred for tribunal secretaries to be regulated through arbitral institutions as opposed to the use of guidelines by international organisations.

On 5 Octoberagreement was reached on the long-awaited Trans-Pacific Partnership. Chapter 9 of the TPP includes substantive provisions on the protection of investments of nationals of contracting states in the territory of the other contracting states. These protections include the ‘national treatment’ protection, the ‘most favoured nation’ protection, a right to fair and equitable treatment, full protection and security and protection against expropriation. The chapter also includes a modern investor-State dispute settlement ISDS mechanism, which permits investors to arbitratioj these protections through consultation and negotiation, or failing these processes, through binding international arbitration.

Investors have the option arbiyration both institutional and ad hoc arbitration. Alternatively, an investor can commence arbitration under:.

Claims must be brought within three and a half years from the date on which the investor first knew or should have known of the alleged breach of the TPP and the investor knew it had incurred loss or damage. The TPP introduces several procedural adica not generally found in older bilateral investment treaties, including provisions: Following agreement on the text of the TPP, it must now be ratified by the respective national legislatures. This is expected to happen within approximately two years.

Once implemented, the TPP will significantly expand the ability of investors in several capital exporting states to take advantage of ISDS mechanisms.

In Junethe Hong Kong Law Reform Commission established a sub-committee to review the position of third party funding in Hong Kong for arbitration. A third party funding arrangement for rulez commonly provides that the third party funder will pay the funded party’s legal and other costs of the arbitration in return for a percentage of the award. While most major international arbitration seats now allow third party funding in arbitration, it is still unclear in Hong Kong whether such arrangements are prohibited by the common-law doctrines of champerty and maintenance.


The purpose of the sub-committee was to review the current position in Hong Kong and to consider whether reform is needed. On 19 Octoberthe sub-committee released a consultation paper in which it recommended that the Arbitration Ordinance should be amended to permit third party funding for arbitrations taking place in Hong Kong.

The recommendation is subject to the proviso that such reform is accompanied by appropriate ethical and financial standards for funders.

The paper invites submissions on issues such as whether there should be a government or independent body overseeing the use of funding and in particular, whether funders should be directly subject to adverse costs orders or made to pay security. In Australia, third party funding of litigation is not prohibited by the common law doctrines of maintenance and champerty.

Court rules and procedures are considered sufficiently robust to protect against potential abuses of process arising from such funding arrangements. However in Singapore third party funding agreements are generally unenforceable unless the funder can demonstrate either that it has a legitimate commercial interest in the claim or the assignment of interest is ancillary to a transfer of property.

This consultation paper from the Hong Kong Law Reform Commission is another sign of Hong Kong’s commitment to attract the international arbitration community to continue to use Hong Kong as a seat in international arbitrations.

A summary of the consultation paper can be found here. The Hong Kong International Arbitration Centre recently launched a new system that allows users to submit confidential evaluations on the performance of their arbitrators and the conduct of their arbitral proceedings. The arbitrators themselves will also be able to rate HKIAC’s services and give feedback on the performance of fellow arbitrators. In a press release, the HKIAC stated that the launch of the system was a response to the preferences expressed in the Queen Mary International Arbitration Survey which indicated that users were looking for greater transparency on arbitrator availability and performance.

GAR Chapter: Australia

The survey reported that 75 per cent of respondents wanted to assess arbitrators at the end of a dispute and 76 per cent of them would like to report to the arbitral institution.

While the results of individual evaluations will not be published, it is expected that the new system will encourage arbitratoin greater sense of accountability among arbitrators who will inevitably be more conscious of their performance. It will no doubt be a challenge for HKIAC to determine what feedback is fair, however, the system should prove useful for HKIAC when deciding whether to renew an arbitrator’s terms on its panel and list of arbitrators.

Acicq arbitral institutions are increasingly afbitration as drivers of innovation in international arbitration. Given the competition between the institutions, it would not be surprising to see similar systems emerge in other arbitral institutions in the region. For further information, please contact: Andrea Martignoni Partner, Sydney Ph: Nick Rudge Partner, Melbourne Ph: