(a) Principle of the reactions underlying DDRT-PCR analysis. (N) Any of the four nucleotides G, A, T, or C. V can be any nucleotide besides T. (B) Any nucleotide. Recently, a new approach has successfully been developed: Differential-Display Reverse Transcription-PCR (DDRT-PCR). This technique has been proven to. Establishment of infection and disease implies modifications in the genetic programmes of the cell systems that are involved and the differential expression of.

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Verma and Verma reported the isolation and purification of antimicrobial peptide from celomic fluid of Indian earthworm Pheretima posthumous. The antagonistic factor was isolated from the bacterial culture medium and purified by thin layer chromatography technique, then analyzed by GC—MS analysis. They are able to antagonize the pathogenic microbes through the competition for space and nutrients, production of antibiotics, production of hydrolytic enzymes and by inducing plant defense mechanisms Ryan et al.

In this study, Bacillus endophyticus strain SA isolated from the inner tissue of the stem of the cultivated plant Salvadora persicaAsir, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia produces an antagonistic factor.

Impact of isolate SA activity in comparison with different antibiotics The antagonistic activity of the endophytic bacterial isolate was compared with ten different known bacterial antibiotics against S.

Endophytes have been defined as microorganisms bacteria or fungi which for all or part of their life cycle reside within the inner parts of plant tissues, but cause no symptoms of disease Vega et al.

Differential display – Wikipedia

Surface sterilization method for reducing microbial contamination of field grown strawberry explants intended for in vitro culture. Khan Z, Doty SL. Multi-target and medium independent fungal antagonism by hydrolytic enzymes in Paenibacillus polymyxa and Bacillus pumilus strains from barley rhizosphere. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Either your web browser doesn’t support Javascript or it is currently turned off.


Both of the pathogenic strain S. In vitro antifungal activity of Argemone ochroleuca Sweet latex against some pathogenic fungi.

The number and extent of the genes affected is not totally known to others. After completion, a fraction of the PCR mixture was examined using 1.

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Any external effect on the organism can affect its genetic behavior in a way of over or down expression of the genes according to the kind of the stimulant. Plant surface sterilization is necessary to avoid the co-contamination with superficial bacteria. Support Center Support Center.

Molecular detection of the antagonistic factor using differential display RT-PCR technique To investigate the upregulated or downregulated genes during the antagonistic process, both of the pathogenic and the antagonistic bacteria were grown either separately on two different nutrient agar plates or close to each other on the same plate.

Introduction Endophytes have been defined as microorganisms bacteria or fungi which for all or part of their life cycle reside within the inner parts of plant tissues, but cause no symptoms of disease Vega et al. We have used different primers that help to amplify different genes, whether over expressed or down expressed at the co-presence of antagonistic isolate and the pathogen.

The extraction of the active metabolites produced by the endophytic isolate SA was done as follows: After the incubation period, the S.

The discovery of these affecting genes is related to the sequence of the primers ddt during the reverse transcription process. One of the colonies was chosen and transferred to a new NA plate to ensure complete purification.

Detected compounds cdrt its derivatives showed various biological activities, for example, Ganendren et al. The antagonistic factor was isolated from the bacterial culture medium dfrt purified by thin layer chromatography technique, then analyzed by GC-MS analysis.


On the other hand, only chloramphenicol recorded 2. Identification of the producer strain was performed using the partial nucleotide sequence of 16S rRNA gene, which indicated that this strain is identical to B. Antibacterial effects of antibiotics compared with endophytic isolate SA against S.

Antagonistic effect of endophytic isolate SA against S. Braz J Infect Dis. The antagonistic effect was only observed with S.

Differential display

Earthworm- a potential source for stable and potent antimicrobial compounds- isolation and purification study. Serine proteases from nematode and protozoan parasites: The production of antibiotics and hydrolytic enzymes is a feature of many endophytic bacilli, including Bacillus cereus Pleban et al.

The mixture was filtered using filter papers to remove the agar medium pieces and the ethanolic filtrate was undergoing to GC—MS analysis as described previously Ezhilan and Neelamegam ; Moustafa et al. Dert sterilized cubic stem parts were then divided into two pieces using a sterilized razor blade. Moustafa1, 2 Tarek H. Find all citations in this journal default.

A typical GC—MS chromatogram of the ethanol extracts inhibition zone slices. The obtained sequences were compared with the sequences deposited in GenBank data base http: Compliance with ethical standards Conflict of interest All authors declare no conflict of interest. However, only one of the sequenced genes was matched with genes deposited in GenBank. This gene was up-regulated, excised from the gel and submitted for gene sequencing Fig.

Chemical formula 1 Decane dddrt Exploring these novel compounds and metabolites may lead to the discovery of new drugs for antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria like methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA. Antibiotics for the empirical treatment of acute infectious diarrhea in children.